Urban demographic patterns in the United States often defy logic, but a new research paper co-authored by Harvard Kennedy School Professor Edward Glaeser is shedding light on why many Americans continue to move to cities that are on the downturn.“Unhappy Cities,” published by the National Bureau for Economic Research (NBER), unpacks the myriad factors that play a role in inducing people to relocate to metropolitan areas that they would otherwise not find suitable.“Self-reported unhappiness is high in [many] declining cities, and this tendency persists even when we control for income, race, and other personal characteristics,” the authors write. “Why are the residents of some cities persistently less happy? Given that they are, why do people choose to live in unhappy places?”Detroit was unhappy even during its heyday, but its residents were well-compensated for their joylessness, according to the study. In this photo, abandoned buildings line the streets during Detroit’s financial decline. Credit: sneurgaonkar/Flickr Creative CommonsThe authors use data culled from the General Social Survey (GSS), the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to track citizens who move to areas where there are high levels of unhappiness. They also examine the ways in which urban unhappiness can be offset by the benefits that may derive from higher incomes and other amenities.The study also utilized life satisfaction survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), which, when controlling for demographics, rank the top four “happiest” American cities as Charlottesville, Va.; Rochester, Minn.; Lafayette, La.; and Naples, Fla. Examples of cities that are in decline and unhappy are Eire, Pa.; Scranton Pa.; and Detroit. According to the second view in the study, Detroit was unhappy even during its heyday, but historically, its residents were well-compensated for their joylessness.Glaeser and his fellow researchers report finding significant differences in well-being across American cities, and at least three examples in which unhappiness is correlated with urban decline. That said, they do not conclude that population decline itself is responsible for the unhappiness.“Differences in happiness and subjective well-being across space weakly support the view that the desires for happiness and life satisfaction do not uniquely drive human ambitions,” the authors write. “If we choose only that which maximized our happiness, then individuals would presumably move to happier places until the point where rising rents and congestion eliminated the joys of that locale. An alternative view is that humans are quite understandably willing to sacrifice both happiness and life satisfaction if the price is right. … Indeed, the residents of unhappier metropolitan areas today do receive higher real wages — presumably as compensation for their misery.”The authors also conclude that many cities with high degrees of unhappiness today were similarly situated in the past, leading the authors to deduce that citizens in previous generations may also have enjoyed higher wages and lower rents as trade-offs for remaining in unhappy cities.Glaeser is the Fred and Eleanor Glimp Professor of Economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences at Harvard University. He is director of the Rappaport Institute for Greater Boston at Harvard Kennedy School.
FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享Times Free Press:The world’s biggest solar producer will build Alabama’s biggest solar farm in Hollywood, Alabama, in the next two years to supply renewable energy for the $600 million data center Google is building on TVA’s former Widows Creek coal plant site.NextEra Energy Resources will build the new 150-megawatt solar farm near the abandoned Bellefonte nuclear plant and sell the power to the Tennessee Valley Authority to help TVA deliver only renewable energy for Google’s nearby facility. A similar-sized solar farm also will be built by Invenergy in Yum Yum, Tennessee to supply another Google data center being built near Clarksville, Tennessee.Collectively, the two solar energy companies will put up 1.6 million solar panels on the two parcels, representing the biggest solar installation in both Tennessee and Alabama and the largest solar farms ever built for Google. Combined, the two new facilities will be capable of generating up to 413 megawatts of electricity at peak periods from the sun.Google is building the new data centers to help meet the rising demand for data transmissions from the search engine giant. Data process centers handle as many as 100 billion searches for Google every month and 500 hours of video uploads to YouTube every minute. Google says its data centers use 50 percent less energy than other comparable data centers. Google also has committed to using only renewable energy to power the facilities.Wednesday’s announcement of the new solar farms for TVA comes less than three months after First Solar and NextEra also announced plans for other 150-megawatt solar farms, also in Tennessee and Alabama, to supply Facebook and other businesses looking for renewable energy to power their operations.More: Largest solar farms in Alabama, Tennessee planned for new Google data centers Google to get 300MW of new TVA solar for Alabama, Tennessee data centers
Reggae Warriors started brightlyBut as soon as the game kicked off Jamaica opened the scoring in the third minute through fullback Joseph Shae, with Canada replying abruptly when Denny McCarthy converted for a 6-4 Wolverines lead.Doncaster’s Aaron Jones-Bishop then released flyer Kenneth Walker twice then on the left for tries for the Reggae Warriors and stand-off Fabion Turner scored a superb solo effort from 30 meters, Jones-Bishop converting to give the Reggae Warriors an 18-6 lead at the break.Canada ate into the deficit shortly after the resumption when veteran winger Tony Felix crashed over on the right edge to make it 18-10. Hosts beat Canada 28-14Jamaica’s Reggae warriors beat Canada 28-14 in the second match in the 2017 Americas Championships in their first home Test, held at the Mona Bowl, University of West Indies, Kingston on Sunday.Inclement weather delayed the start of the game by 15 minutes. Historic winJamaica’s Kareen Harris scored next but Canada again responded, this time through hooker Jack Couzens to make it 22-14 and set up a tense finish.Both teams exhibited firm defense but Jamaica debutant Steve Miller sent the crowd into joyous celebration when he recovered a chip kick from Shae on half way and raced untouched to the try line, Jones-Bishop converting to seal a historic win.