Polar regions have great sensitivity to climate forcing; however, understanding of the physical processes coupling the atmosphere and ocean in these regions is relatively poor. Improving our knowledge of high-latitude surface fluxes will require close collaboration among meteorologists, oceanographers, ice physicists, and climatologists, and between observationalists and modelers, as well as new combinations of in situ measurements and satellite remote sensing. This article describes the deficiencies in our current state of knowledge about air–sea surface fluxes in high latitudes, the sensitivity of various high-latitude processes to changes in surface fluxes, and the scientific requirements for surface fluxes at high latitudes. We inventory the reasons, both logistical and physical, why existing flux products do not meet these requirements. Capturing an annual cycle in fluxes requires that instruments function through long periods of cold polar darkness, often far from support services, in situations subject to icing and extreme wave conditions. Furthermore, frequent cloud cover at high latitudes restricts the availability of surface and atmospheric data from visible and infrared (IR) wavelength satellite sensors. Recommendations are made for improving high-latitude fluxes, including 1) acquiring more in situ observations, 2) developing improved satellite-flux-observing capabilities, 3) making observations and flux products more accessible, and 4) encouraging flux intercomparisons.
Arsenal and Liverpool are interested in Pepe (Picture: Getty)United have had a long-standing interest in Pepe and last week stepped up their interest in the Lille star.Ole Gunnar Solskjaer is desperate to add quality and new characters to his squad, with United also chasing Sporting Lisbon midfielder Bruno Fernandes.AdvertisementAdvertisementUnited are preparing to collect a big transfer fee for Romelu Lukaku, after rejecting a £54m offer from Inter for the striker.The Manchester side want closer to £75m for Lukaku, but will use the funds raised from the sale to go after Pepe.More: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man City Manchester United advance transfer talks with Lille over signing of Nicolas Pepe Comment Pepe is expected to leave Lille this summer (Picture: Getty)Manchester United have progressed talks with Lille to sign Nicolas Pepe, according to reports.Arsenal and Liverpool are chasing Pepe and French media claim the Premier League duo have lodged offers for the forward.The 24-year-old is one of the most in-demand attackers this summer following his impressive season for Lille in which he scored 22 goals in Ligue 1.Lille want upwards of £70million for Pepe and The Times claim United have advanced discussions to sign the goalscorer.ADVERTISEMENT Advertisement United advanced talks with Lille last week (Picture: Getty)While Lille are eager to cash in on Pepe, the player is yet to give an indication on which side he wants to join this summer.Pepe is on holiday after taking part in the Africa Cup of Nations over the summer.Only Kylian Mbappe (33) scored more goals than Pepe in Ligue 1 last season, as the winger caught the eye of several top clubs.La Liga and Serie A sides are interested in Pepe and Paris Saint-Germain have also been tipped to raid their French rivals.MORE: Manchester United boss Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to take on Roy Keane’s advice after private chatMore: FootballBruno Fernandes responds to Man Utd bust-up rumours with Ole Gunnar SolskjaerNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseArsenal flop Denis Suarez delivers verdict on Thomas Partey and Lucas Torreira moves Coral BarrySunday 21 Jul 2019 11:41 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link1.4kShares Advertisement
RelatedPosts COVID-19: NCAA to revoke erring airlines licence over non-compliance Club’s server collapses over ticket demand for first Bundesliga game in 11 years FRSC to Schools: We’ll arrest, prosecute drivers who flout COVID-19 rules RB Leipzig have become the first Bundesliga club allowed to have some fans back in their stadium for their season opener next month.This was after the city’s health authority on Tuesday gave the green light for up to 8,500 spectators to attend. The city said the club, who last month were knocked out of the UEFA Champions League in the semi-finals, could have fans back in their ground against Mainz 05 on September 20.But this will be if novel coronavirus infection rates in the region remain at current levels.“After a detailed examination, the Leipzig health authority has approved the strict health plan of Bundesliga club RB Leipzig,” the city said in a statement.“This means for the first game of the season on September 20 up to 8,500 spectators can be allowed in.”All fans will have to wear face masks and will be placed in small groups spread across the 42,000-capacity stadium. There will be no visiting spectators and all supporters must provide personal details and be local residents.“With this approval we want to dare to go a bit towards normalcy,” Leipzig mayor Burkhart Jung said.“We are aware that the pandemic is far from beaten. But wherever possible – under strict conditions – people must be allowed to return to their daily routines.”Bundesliga clubs have been playing without fans since March.The league was interrupted between March and May due to the COVID-19 pandemic and resumed without spectators. Germany recorded 1,218 new cases of the virus and four deaths on Tuesday with the total death toll at 9,302.Reuters/NAN.Tags: BundesligaCOVID-19FansRB Leipzig
Manchester United’s injury crisis has deepened after Phil Jones and Ander Herrera were both forced off during the Red Devils’ 2-1 win over Watford. Press Association Herrera provided a superb cross for Memphis Depay’s opening goal at Vicarage Road but the playmaker lasted only 25 minutes, as a hamstring strain meant he had to be replaced by Marcos Rojo. Jones was also substituted after the England defender twisted his ankle and United manager Louis van Gaal now expects both players to miss Wednesday’s Champions League clash at home to PSV Eindhoven. Depay’s United career has been one of fits and starts since his £25million move in the summer and Van Gaal admitted this week he had expected more of the 21-year-old this season. A lively display, however, was capped off by an excellent finish in the first half as Depay struck a sweet volley into the top corner to give United the lead. “The goal was superb,” Van Gaal said. “A fantastic pass from Ander Herrera. He finished it very well. I think also the first half he played a very good game. “The second half a little bit less, because he is six weeks out of the team and lacks some match rhythm so I can understand that. “I think he played a very good match, like Jesse Lingard. The way we played, it suits them. That was good.” Watford were fortunate to be only one goal behind at half-time but the Hornets rallied in the second period and deserved their spot-kick after Rojo swiped through the back of Odion Ighalo. Deeney slammed the penalty down the middle but five minutes later inadvertently restored United’s lead after he bundled home Bastian Schweinsteiger’s cross. “It was painful to lose in extra-time because I think we deserved to draw,” Watford head coach Quique Sanchez Flores said. “In the second half we made a lot of effort to score. We scored in the last moment and felt it was possible to get a point against Man United – a very tough game – so to lose is very hard.” On Deeney, Sanchez Flores added: “It’s a pity because as always he was very brave to accept the challenge to score the penalty. “He scored it very well but it’s Deeney – what happened is possible because he’s fighting everywhere on the pitch, so he tried to remove the ball from the line of our goal. “It’s possible. It means Deeney is fighting in every moment in every part of the pitch. So we can take positive conclusions from it.” Watford looked like they had snatched a draw when Troy Deeney equalised with a late penalty but in injury time the striker went from hero to villain as his own goal gifted United victory. United already have a lengthy list of absentees, including Wayne Rooney (illness), Anthony Martial (foot), Marouane Fellaini (calf), Michael Carrick (ankle), Antonio Valencia (foot) and Luke Shaw (leg). Van Gaal also said striker James Wilson has a swollen knee. “We are in a lousy period because there are a lot of injuries,” Van Gaal said. “Jones and Herrera are not available for Wednesday. The first impression is they are not heavy injuries but we have to play Wednesday. “Jones has a twisted ankle and Herrera maybe a hamstring injury. Rooney is ill and illness is a matter of days, not weeks. “I do expect that he shall play Wednesday. He is at home. Tomorrow he comes and then I can say more. “Martial has a foot problem. It is not so heavy as the media has written but you never know, we have to wait and see.” United’s shortage of forward options offered an opportunity for Depay against Watford, who made his first league start since the 3-0 loss to Arsenal on October 4.